Biography of Imam Asy-Shafi'i, Life Story and Scientific

Abū bdAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shafi'i or Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi'i (Arabic: محمد بن إدريس الشافعي) who is commonly called Imam Shafi'i (Ashkelon, Gaza, Palestine, 150 H / 767 M - Fusthat, Egypt 204H / 819 CE) is a great Sunni Islamic mufti and also the founder of the Shafi'i school. Imam Shafi'i is also a relative of the Prophet, he is included in the Banu Muttalib, a descendant of al-Muttalib, the brother of Hashim, who was Muhammad's grandfather.

At the age of 20, Imam Shafi'i went to Medina to study with the great ulama of the time, Imam Malik. Two years later, he also went to Iraq, to ​​study with Imam Hanafi students there.

Imam Shafi'i has two different grounds for the Shafi'i School. The first ones are named Qaulun Qadim and Qaulun Jadid.

Birth

Idris bin Abbas accompanied his wife on a long journey, namely to the village of Gaza, Palestine, where at that time Muslims were fighting to defend the Islamic country in the city of Asqalan.

At that time Fatimah al-Azdiyyah was pregnant, Idris bin Abbas was happy with this, then he said, "If you give birth to a son, I will call Muhammad, and I will call by the name of one of his grandfathers, Shafi'i bin Asy- Shaykh. "

Finally, Fatimah gave birth in Gaza, and was proven by what her father had dreamed about. The child was named Muhammad, and was called by the name "Shafi'i".

Most historians are of the opinion that Imam Shafi'i was born in Gaza, Palestine, but among these opinions also stated that he was born in Asqalan; a city about three farsakhs from Gaza. According to historians as well, Imam Shafi'i was born in 150 AH, which in this year also died a great Sunni scholar named Imam Abu Hanifa.

Imam Ahmad bin Hambal said, "Verily, Allah has predestined every hundred years that someone will teach the Sunnah and will get rid of the liars against the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him. We argue that in the first hundred years Allah predestined Umar bin Abdul Aziz and in the following hundred years Allah predestined Imam Shafi'i.


Nasab

Idris, Imam Shafi'i's father lived in the land of Hijaz, he was a descendant of al-Muttalib, so he belonged to the Banu Muttalib. Nasab He is Muhammad bin Idris bin Al-Abbas bin Uthman bin Shafi 'bin As-Sa'ib bin Ubaid bin Abdi Yazid bin Hashim bin Al-Mutthalib bin Abdul Manaf bin Qushay bin Kilab bin Murrah bin Ka'ab bin Lu'ay bin Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Nadhr ibn Kinanah ibn Khuzaimah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudhar ibn Nizar ibn Ma'ad ibn Adnan. His Nasab met with the Messenger of Allah at Abdul Manaf.

From this nasab, Al-Mutthalib bin Abdi Manaf, Muhammad's grandfather bin Idris Asy-Shafi'ie, is the biological brother of Hasyim bin Abdi Manaf the grandfather of the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu 'alaihi wa over wasallam

Then also the brother of Abdul Mutthalib bin Hasyim, the grandfather of the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu 'alaihi wa over wasallam, named Syifa', was married by Ubaid bin Abdi Yazid, thus giving birth to a child named As-Sa'ib, his father Shafi'. To Syafi 'bin As-Sa'ib radliyallahu' anhuma this orphan baby was named his nasab so that it was famous by the name Muhammad bin Idris Asy-Shafi'ie Al-Mutthalibi. Thus this orphan nasab is very close to the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu 'alaihi waalihi wasallam.

Even because Hashim bin Abdi Manaf, who later gave birth to the Children of Hashim, was a sibling with Mutthalib bin Abdi Manaf, who gave birth to the Children of Mutthalib, the Messenger of Allah said:
"Only we (ie Banu Hashim) with them (namely Banu Mutthalib) come from one nasab. As he crossed the fingers of his hands. "
—HR. Abu Nu'aim Al-Asfahani in his Hilyah 9 chapters. 65-66

Study period

After Imam Shafi'i's father died and two years of his birth, the mother took him to Mecca, the ancestral homeland. He grew up there in an orphanage. Since childhood, Shafi'i was quick to memorize poetry, was proficient in Arabic and literature to the extent that Al Ashma'i said, "I recited the poems of the children of Hudzail from a young man from Quraisy called Muhammad bin Idris," Imam Shafi'i is the language priest Arab.
Study in Mecca

In Mecca, Imam Shafi'i studied fiqh with the mufti there, Muslim bin Khalid Az Zanji so he allowed him to give fatwah when he was 15 years old. For the sake of he felt the sweetness of knowledge, then with the knowledge of Allah and His guidance, he began to enjoy studying jurisprudence after becoming a character in Arabic and his poetry. These orphans learned jurisprudence from the Ulama ’fiqh in Mecca, such as the Muslim bin Khalid Az-Zanji who at that time was the mufti of Makkah.

Then he also learned from Dawud bin Abdurrahman Al-Atthar, also learned from his uncle named Muhammad bin Ali bin Shafi, and also studied from Sufyan bin Uyainah.

The other teachers in fiqh are Abdurrahman bin Abi Bakr Al-Mulaiki, Sa'id bin Salim, Fudhail bin Al-Ayyadl and many others. He was even more prominent in the field of jurisprudence in just a few years sitting in various halaqah of the scholars of 'Fiqh as mentioned above.

Study in Medina

Then he went to Medina and studied fiqh to Imam Malik bin Anas. He read the book Muwattha 'to Imam Malik and memorized it in 9 nights. Imam Shafi'i narrated the hadith from Sufyan bin Uyainah, Fudlail bin Iyadl and his uncle, Muhammad bin Shafi 'and others.

In his assembly, the orphan memorized and comprehended brilliantly the book by Imam Malik, namely Al-Muwattha '. His intelligence made Imam Malik greatly admire him. Meanwhile As-Shafi'ie himself was very impressed and greatly admired Imam Malik in Al-Madinah and Imam Sufyan bin Uyainah in Makkah.

He expressed his admiration after becoming an Imam with his famous statement saying: "If there were no Malik bin Anas and Sufyan bin Uyainah, knowledge from the Hijaz would have been lost." He also stated further his admiration for Imam Malik: "If Imam Malik came to an assembly "Then Malik became a star in the assembly." He was also so impressed with the book Al-Muwattha 'Imam Malik that he stated: "There is no more useful book after the Qur'an, more than Al-Muwattha". also stated: "I do not read Al-Muwattha 'Malik, unless I must increase my understanding."

From his various statements above it can be seen that the teacher he most admired was Imam Malik bin Anas, then Imam Sufyan bin Uyainah. In addition, this young man also sat memorizing and understanding the knowledge of the Ulama 'in Al-Madinah, such as Ibrahim bin Sa'ad, Isma'il bin Ja'far, Atthaf bin Khalid, Abdul Aziz Ad-Darawardi. He also memorized a lot of knowledge in his assembly Ibrahim bin Abi Yahya. But unfortunately, the teacher who was mentioned last was a liar in narrating the hadith, having the same view as the Qadariyah school of thought who refused to believe in taqdir and various other fatal weaknesses. So that when the young Quraysh was already known for his title as Imam Shafi'ie, especially at the end of his life, he no longer wanted to mention the name of Ibrahim bin Abi Yahya in various fields of knowledge.

In Yemen

Imam Shafi'i then went to Yemen and worked briefly there. It was mentioned a series of Yemeni Ulama who were visited by him such as: Mutharrif bin Mazin, Hisham bin Yusuf Al-Qadli and many others. From Yemen, he continued his scientific tour to the city of Baghdad in Iraq and in this city he took a lot of knowledge from Muhammad bin Al-Hasan, a fiqh expert in the country of Iraq. Also he took knowledge from Isma'il bin Ulaiyyah and Abdul Wahhab Ats-Tsaqafi and many others.

In Baghdad, Iraq

Then he went to Baghdad (183 and 195), where he learned from Muhammad bin Hasan. He had an exchange of ideas which made the Caliph Ar Rasyid.

In Egypt

Imam Shafi'i met Ahmad bin Hanbal in Mecca in 187 AH and in Baghdad in 195 H. From Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Imam Shafi'i studied his fiqh, ushul madzhab, explanations of nasikh and mansukh. In Baghdad, Imam Shafi'i wrote his old school (madzhab qodim). Then I moved to Egypt in 200 H and wrote a new school of thought. There he died as a martyr in the end of the month of Rajab 204 H.

PAPERS

Ar-Risalah

One of his essays is "Ar treatise" the first book on ushul fiqh and the book "Al Umm" which contains his new fiqh school. Imam Shafi'i is an absolute mujtahid, imam fiqh, hadith, and usul. He was able to combine the fiqh of Iraqi experts and fiqh of Hijaz experts. Imam Ahmad said of Imam Shafi'i, "He is the most faqih person in the Koran and As Sunnah," "No one has ever held a pen and ink (knowledge) but Allah gave him in the 'Shafi'i' neck,". Thasy Kubri said in Miftahus sa'adah, "Scholars of fiqh, ushul, hadith, language, nahwu, and other disciplines agree that Shafi'i has the nature of trust (trust)," is (religious and moral credibility), zuhud, wara ', piety, generous, good behavior, high degree. People who mention a lot of his life journey are still incomplete, "

Shafi'i School

The basis of the school: Al Quran, Sunnah, Ijma 'and Qiyas. He also did not take Istihsan (considering a problem well) as the basis of his schools of thought, rejecting the problems of the masses, the actions of the people of Medina. Imam Shafi'i said, "Whoever commits istihsan has created the Shari'a." Baghdad residents say, "Imam Shafi'i is nashirussunnah (defender of the sunnah),"

Muhammad ibn Daud said, "During the time of the Imam Shafi'i, he never heard the slightest talk about Eve, nor was it attributed to him and unknown from him, even he hated Ahlil Kalam and Ahlil Bid'ah." He talked about Ahlil Bid 'Ah, a Jahmiyah figure, Ibrahim bin' Ulayyah, "Verily, Ibrahim ibn 'Ulayyah is misguided." Imam Shafi'i also said, "In my opinion, the ahlil kalam punishment was beaten with palm fronds and pulled with camels and then paraded around the village while shouted, "This is the reply of those who leave the book and sunnah, and turn to the science of kalam."

Imam Shafi'i includes Imam Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama'ah, he is far from understanding Asy'ariyyah and Maturidiyyah who deviate in aqeedah, especially in matters of aqidah relating to Asma and Shifat Allah subahanahu wa Ta'ala. He did not equate the name and nature of Allah with the name and nature of the creature, nor did it match, did not eliminate it and also did not minister it. But he said in this matter, that Allah has the name and nature as stated in the Qur'an and as reported by the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wassalam to his people. It is not permissible for anyone to reject it, because the Qur'an has come down with it (the name and nature of Allah) and there is also a valid history about it. If there is such a difference after the establishment of the truth of the crime then he is infidel. As for if it is not yet straightened up, then he is forgiven stupidly. Because knowledge about Asthma and the Nature of God cannot be reached with reason, theory and mind. "We establish the attributes of Allah and we exclude the likeness of him as Allah negates from Himself. Allah says,

He passed on to the next generation as inherited by the prophets, which is useful knowledge. His knowledge is widely narrated by his students and neatly stored in various disciplines. In fact he was a pioneer in writing in the field of Usul Fiqh, with his monumental work Risala. And in the field of jurisprudence, he wrote the book Al-Umm which is known by everyone, its laity and pious. Also he wrote the book Jima'ul Ilmi.

He has many students, who generally become figures and dignitaries of Islamic scholars and imams, the most prominent are: 1. Ahmad bin Hambal, Hadith Expert and at the same time also Expert Fiqi Quotation error: Tag ref is invalid; references without content must have the Imam and Ahlus Sunnah with the agreement of the Muslims. 2. Al-Hasan bin Muhammad Az-Za'farani 3. Ishaq bin Rahawaih, 4. Harmalah bin Yahya 5. Sulaiman bin Dawud Al Hasyimi 6. Abu Tsaur Ibrahim bin Khalid Al Kalbi and many others.

Al-Hujjah

The book "Al Hujjah" which is an old school is narrated by four Iraqi imams; Ahmad bin Hanbal, Abu Tsaur, Za'farani, Al Karabisyi from Imam Shafi'i.

In the matter of the Al-Qur'an, he Imam Imam Shafi'i said, "Al-Qur'an is Qalamullah, whoever says that the Qur'an is a creature then he has disbelieved."

Al-Umm

While the book "Al Umm" as the new school of Imam Shafi'i is narrated by his followers in Egypt; Al Muzani, Al Buwaithi, Ar Rabi 'Jizii bin Sulaiman. Imam Shafi'i said about his school, "If a authentic hadith contradicts my words, then throw my words behind the wall,"

"Goodness is in five things: wealth of the soul, restrain from hurting others, seeking halal fortune, taqwa and tsiqqah to God. Human pleasure is an impossible goal to reach, there is no way to survive from human speech, it is obligatory for you to be consistent with things that are beneficial to you ".

"Follow the Hadith Experts by you, because they are the most righteous."

He said, "All my words that cross the authentic hadith then take the authentic hadith and do not taqlid to me."

He said, "All authentic hadith from the Prophet sallallaahu‘ alayhi wassalam then that is my opinion even though you did not hear it from me. "

He said, "If you find in my book something that overlaps the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallaahu‘ alayhi wassalam, then say the sunnah of the Prophet and leave my words. "

End of life

One day, Imam Shafi'i was hit with hemorrhoids, and it remained so that sometimes when he rode in the vehicle his blood flowed on his pants and even on his saddle and socks. This hemorrhoids really tortured him for almost four years, he endured pain for his new ijtihad in Egypt, producing four thousand pieces. In addition he continued to teach, research dialogue and study both day and night.

One day his student Al-Muzani came in and said, "How are you, O teacher?" Imam Shafi'i replied, "I am ready to leave the world, leave my brothers and friends, begin to drink the drink of death, to Allah, remembrance continues. Really, by Allah, I don't know whether my soul will walk to heaven so I need to say congratulations, or is going to hell so I have to mourn? ".

After that, he looked around and said to them, "If I die, you go to the wali (ruler), and ask him to bathe me," then his cousin said, "We will come down for prayer." The Imam replied, " Go and after that sit here waiting for my soul to come out. "After his cousin and students prayed, the Imam asked," Are you praying? "Then they answered," Yes ", then he asked for a glass of water, at that time it was winter. , they said, "Let us mix with warm water," he said, "No, preferably with safarjal water". After that he died. Imam Shafi'i died on Friday night before dawn on the last day of Rajab in 204 Hijriyyah or 809 Miladiyyah at the age of 52.

Not long after news of his death spread in Egypt until the sadness and sorrow struck all the citizens, they all came out of the house wanting to bring the body on their shoulders, because of the terrible sadness that had forged them. No words were said at the time except the request of mercy and pleasure for those who had left.

A number of scholars went to see the guardian of Egypt, Muhammad bin as-Suri bin al-Hakam, asking him to come to the funeral home to bathe the Imam according to his will. He said to them, "Has the Imam left debt?", "Right!" They answered in unison. Then the guardian of Egypt ordered to pay off the debts of the Imam entirely. After that the guardian of Egypt bathed the body of the Imam.

The body of Imam Shafi'i was taken from his house, passing the al-Fusthath street and its market to the Darbi as-Siba area, now the Sayyidah an-Nafisah street. And, Sayyidah Nafisah asked to put the body of the Imam into his house, after the body was inserted, he went down to the house yard and then prayed the body, and said, "May Allah bless Shafi'i, truly he is really doing good ablution."

The body was then taken, up to the land of Ibn Abdi al-Hakam's children, where he was buried, which later became known as Turbah as-Shafi'i to this day, and there was also built a mosque called as-Shafi'i Mosque. Egyptians continue to visit the tomb of the Imam until 40 days 40 nights, each pilgrim can not easily get to his tomb because of the many pilgrims.

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